Menstrual Cycle And Female Hormones Controlling Ovulation

A typical menstrual cycle has two stages.

It begins with menstruation after which comes the pre-ovulatory (estrogen phase). After the second phase begins; post ovulatory (progesterone phase).

The menstrual cycle is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary system in conjunction with the cerebral cortex and other endocrine glands. The main role of gonadotropin hormones (pituitary FSH and LH) and the hormones secreted by the ovaries (estrogen, progesterone). The average length of this cycle is 28 days. Days of the cycle are counted from the first day of menstruation (bleeding), and about the 14th day of the cycle is ovulation (ovulation). Contrary to popular belief this moment does not fall in the middle of the cycle, and is positioned exactly 14 days before the expected menstruation

The Most Important Hormones Controlling Ovulation Cycle:


  1. Estrogens
  2. Estradiol
  3. Progesterone
  4. Luteinizing hormone LH
  5. FSH
  6. Prolactin



Hormonal Changes in The Cycle and Their Symptoms:

Hormonal changes that occur in the female body during each cycle cause a variety of symptoms, including:

  • changes in the quality of cervical mucus,
  • changes in core body temperature,
  • changes in the cervix.

Moving hormones during each menstrual cycle are responsible for both, the physiological changes in the women’s sexual organs, and changing its well-being, physical and intellectual, as well as changes in skin condition and appearance. Being aware of these changes and the ability of their daily recognition are much easier to deal with emerging periodically ailments.

Example 28 day Menstrual Cycle and Hormone Levels

• Between 1 and 5 day
The first day of bleeding is also the first day of the cycle. gradually increasing the secretion of FSH and LH. The level of estrogens and progesterone drops during this time, which makes the endometrium peels – a monthly bleeding occurs. Under the influence of the pituitary hormone (FSH) begin to develop and mature follicles (follicle) in which they are ova. Low levels of estrogen and progesterone causes the feeling is much better than before bleeding, when the levels of these hormones reaches its highest concentration.

• Between 6 and 13 the day of the pre-ovulatory phase (called estrogen or follicular phase)
lutein gland produces hormone (LH), which causes the follicle grows egg cell and the ovaries secrete more estrogen. Increased levels of estrogen makes the hair shine beautifully, complexion is not flawless, and the woman bursting with energy. This stage doctors call post-menstrual euphoria.

• Day special – 14
Estrogens reach the highest level. Rapidly increasing levels of lutein and then bursts the bubble of the oocyte. It is ovulating. When the menstrual cycle lasts longer, for example. Ovulation takes 30 days to 16 days cycle. Being a woman is then outstanding. A woman is 10,000 times more sensitive to smells, especially on male pheromone androstenol. spotting.

• Between 15 and 20 of the postovulatory phase (also known as progesterone or luteal phase)

It is a phase dominated the action of the hormone – progesterone. Maintained a high level of estrogen. Empty follicle is converted to the so-called. corpus luteum and begins to produce progesterone, which prepares the endometrium for the adoption of a fertilized egg. Pregnancy is still possible for two days after ovulation. During these five days the woman feels a bit sluggish, because your body retains more water and slowly burns calories delivered him.

• Between 21 to 28 days
If you have not been fertilized ovum, the estrogen level decreases rapidly. The corpus luteum disappears, and with it decreases the level of progesterone. most suffer from PMS. Women are irritable, unable to concentrate, quickly changing the mood. On the feet, hands and face appear edema. Breasts are painful and swollen. In 20 percent. symptoms are so severe that they must be treated medically.

Hormones undoubtedly affect the size of the female breast. First of all estrogene and progesterone affect the size of the breast, but you should also pay attention to prolactin. This is what makes the breasts grow during pregnancy and it is followed by the production of milk. This is a very important hormone for the development of breasts. This can be seen especially during menstruation – bust is larger especially at the end of the menstrual cycle and during the first days of menstruation. Breasts grow as a result of taking the contraceptive pills and as a result of pregnancy or in situations where the level of prolactin is increased.

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